All human kingdoms are founded upon false values; and sin, injustice, oppression, and exploitation at last mar the image of the best of them. . . (I know) how you see it now. The early patriarchs, Job ( Job 19:25-27 , 33:23-26 ) and Abraham ( John 8:56 ), desired Him. "Holy flesh" (that is, the flesh of a sacrifice, Jeremiah 11:15 ), indeed, makes holy the "skirt" in which it is carried; but that "skirt" cannot impart its sanctity to any thing beyond, as "bread," &c. ( Leviticus 6:27 ). Keil construed this as a reference to Sinai and the earthquake that marked the giving of the Law to Moses. What they commanded in case (2) was already covered. 7. shake--not convert; but cause that agitation which is to precede Messiah's coming as the healer of the nations' agitations. Let's have none of that nonsense about the time not being ripe; do you suppose the times are ripe for you to live in your nice houses while the house of God lies in ruins ? But when two nouns stand together, of which one is governed by the other, the verb agrees sometimes in number with the latter, though it really has the former as its nominative, that is, the Hebrew "come" is made in number to agree with "nations," though really agreeing with "the desire." ( Ezra 3:10 Ezra 3:11 ); the foundation now laid was the secondary one, which, above the earth, was laid on the previous work [TIRINUS]. "[26] God surely had intervened in human affairs by the summary end which he had brought to the Babylonian captivity of the Jews; and the prophet here made such an intervention by God upon behalf of his people a prophecy of a far greater shaking of the "heavens and the earth" to occur in the dispensation of the "last times." "[30] "Haggai, like Zechariah, saw in Zerubbabel the Messianic King,"[31] This was in the fullness of time fully vindicated as an authentic vision. Eugene H. Merrill, An Exegetical Commentary: Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, pp. This is the same ninth month, Chisleu, corresponding to November/December. Throughout the minor prophets, we have repeatedly found references to hundreds of specific provisions and requirements of God's law as written in the Pentateuch; and there is no reasonable way to doubt that Haggai here was referring to that prior existing code of God's laws. Announce this news about God the same yesterday, today, and forever … Continue reading "Commentary on Haggai 1:15b-2:9" [5] However, it was not merely the lesser height and volume of the new edifice that attested its inferiority, but the lack of all the extravagant adornment which had distinguished the first. MOORE and others translate "the beauty," or "the desirable things (the precious gifts) of all nations shall come" ( Isaiah 60:5 Isaiah 60:11 , 61:6 ). One drop of filth will defile a vase of water: many drops of water will not purity a vase of filth [MOORE]. The Hebrew for "once" expresses the indefinite article "a" [MAURER]. This writer does not claim any competence to decide such a question of Hebrew grammar; but, upon the unequivocal analysis of such a scholar as Feinberg (Dean, and Professor of Semitics, Talbot Theological Seminary, La Mirada, California), which, as far as we are able to determine is not contradicted by any authority whatever, we must in conscience receive the rendition which, to us, is clearly demanded by the entire context. The use of a plural verb here does not militate against the Messianic interpretation, for there are instances in which the verb agrees with the second of two nouns."[14]SIZE>. The continuity of the prophecies of the Messiah, reaching all the way back to Genesis 3:15 demanded the continuity of Israel. This mention of Zerubbabel is not a mistaken identification of Zerubbabel as the Messiah; but it is a prophecy of Christ, of whom Zerubabbel was a type. . As is characteristic of practically all of the prophecies of the Final Judgment, this one also mingles revelations with it that would appear to have their primary fulfillment in the kingdom of Christ, which is the Church. The very next verse reminds us that God already owns all the gold and silver; and far from being an explanation of the nature of the promised glory, verse 8 is an explanation of what the glory is not! We must apologize for those writers who suppose that Haggai thought Zerubbabel was the Messiah, and that such is what he wrote in this passage. Jesus Christ is the desire of all nations; people are yearning for Him, longing for Him, even though they do not know it. "I will shake the heavens ... earth ... sea ... and dry land ..." We hold these words to be unequivocally a reference to the final Judgment that shall close the age of probation for the human race. Appropriated from Amos 4:9 , whose canonicity is thus sealed by Haggai's inspired authority; in the last clause, "turned," however, has to be supplied, its omission marking by the elliptical abruptness ("yet ye not to Me!") Also, God's being with the old Israel must be considered as a type and symbol of his being with his church throughout the ages. The inward glory of New Testament redemption far exceeds the outward glory of the Old Testament dispensation. Thus, Haggai's "little while" is the same as John's "little time," and "short time." Haggai 2:20-23 . Not only did the kings of the earth aid the Jews in the building of their Second Temple, but in the days of Herod the Great, that monarch did indeed spend the vast resources of his whole kingdom in the most costly and extravagant decorations of it. Any strict execution of the justice of God would apparently have required all of the Jewish Canaanites to be destroyed in the same manner as the original Canaanites. "Every one by the sword of his brother ..." That is the "modus operandi" of the divine will. "According to the word which I covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, and my Spirit abode among you: fear ye not.". . Being worn on the finger, it was an object of constant regard. and how do ye see it now? A note in the Douay Version states: "This promise relates to Christ who was of the race of Zerubbabel. The inspiration of Haggai and Zechariah at this time was a specimen of the presence of God's Spirit remaining still with His people, as He had been with Moses and Israel of old ( Ezra 5:1 , Isaiah 63:11 ). The whole nation was defiled through their long neglect of sacred duty and the two generations of contact with Babylonian paganism. Haggai 2:1-9 . The ancient covenant that God made with Abraham, promising to bless "all the people of the earth" through his "seed" (singular, which is Christ), will yet be honored by the Father. Since those days were--from the time that those days of your neglect of the temple work have been. True, there had been a gross misunderstanding on secular Israel's part about what God's blessing meant, most of them interpreting it to mean that God would help them subdue all earthly enemies and incorporate the defeated nations into Israel's "godless state" or "kingdom," which was a concept foreign to God altogether. The prophet, in fact, propounded two queries: (1) regarding a situation upon which the word of the Lord had provided no directive, and (2) regarding a situation that was most explicitly covered in the sacred law. Besides, Messiah may be described as realizing in Himself at His coming "the desires (the noun expressing collectively the plural) of all nations"; whence the verb is plural. . However low their estimate of the present temple ("it") from its outward inferiority, God holds it superior ( Zechariah 4:10 , 1 Corinthians 1:27 1 Corinthians 1:28 ). . . As "Shiloh" ( Genesis 49:10 ) means peace, this verse confirms the view that Haggai 2:7 , "the desire of all nations," refers to Shiloh or Messiah, foretold in Genesis 49:10 . Charles L. Feinberg discussed this verse as follows: "Moreover, in Hebrew an abstract noun is often used instead of the concrete; thus a reference to the Messiah is not automatically ruled out on the basis of language considerations. "Peace ..." The RSV and other versions have rendered this word "prosperity" for no compelling reason; and again we are compelled to find fault with this type of tampering with the Word of God. fifty vessels out of the press--As the Septuagint translates "measure," and Vulgate "a flagon," and as we should rather expect vat than press. Therefore, when the remnant was restored to the land of Canaan, and after they had been working only about a month, the Lord provided the strong assurances of this promise that he was "with" them. ninth month--three days more than two months from the second prophecy ( Haggai 2:1 ); in the month Chisleu, the lunar one about the time of our December. Haggai 2 commentary 1. Regardless of that ultimate fulfillment, there were many lesser and more immediate fulfillments of this part of the promise. Moreover, while the Jews as a nation desired Him not (to which people Isaiah 53:2 refers), the Gentiles, who are plainly pointed out by "all nations," accepted Him; and so to them He was peculiarly desirable. His four addresses to the people make up the book that bears his name in the Bible. It is pointless to speculate upon Haggai's complete understanding of what Jehovah here said, or not. "[8] This is quite obviously the same construction that the author of Hebrews placed upon the passage. Zerubbabel's significance lies in the fact of his being the only visible heir and successor to David that was known in that age; and the inclusion of the Babylonian governor of Israel in the prophecy meant that God's ancient promise to David of one to sit upon his throne was yet valid, that it still stood, and that "in that day" the new Zerubbabel would appear. The fulfillment of that promise would yet come, but not in the way fleshly Israel imagined. In fact, Numbers 19:22 makes precisely that application of it. Two very different events are in view. (Significantly, Haggai here connected the very class of disasters modern man likes to explain solely upon the basis of "natural causes" as judgmental in character.). God overthrew kingdoms in the times of Haggai, and soon thereafter, and has continued to overthrow kingdoms ever since. In fact, God, right now, is in the business of overthrowing kingdoms. "Is the seed yet in the barn? Copyright © 2021, Bible Study Tools. A broad view of the human race on earth clearly reveals that the people who have honored God enjoy degrees of earthly prosperity unmatched and even unapproached by anything visible in those lands where paganism still prevails. Haggai 2:7. Each of us must walk in the light we have. Haggai 2:18. "Consider from this day and backward ..." This was a call for the people to look back over the past fourteen years of their shameful neglect of the principal purpose for which they had been allowed by the Father to return to their homeland, and to observe the stark lack of God's blessing. The priests were the authorized expounders of the law ( Leviticus 10:11 , Deuteronomy 33:10 , Ezekiel 44:23 , Malachi 2:7 ). . The Red Horse of the Apocalypse did not make a foray into the earth and then go back to heaven! FOURTH PROPHECY. "[11] What is clearly prophesied here is that the "true riches of God (typified here as the silver and the gold) will make the house of God (the church) outshine the glory of Solomon's temple. As long as a substantial proportion of a nation are God-fearing, honest, Christ-worshipping people, the land prospers, much of the prosperity spilling over to bless blatant and unrepentant sinners; but when the character of a whole nation is changed, the blessings of God are invariably withheld. (10-19) The kingdom of Christ foretold. The latter part of Haggai 2:7 is apparently just such a revelation. "I will make thee as a signet ..." The signet ring conferred upon its wearer the full authority and power of the giver; and this is a pledge of the absolute authority and power of Jesus Christ. even from the day that the foundation of … "Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith Jehovah; and be strong, O Joshua son of Jehozodak, the High Priest; and be strong, all ye people of the land, saith Jehovah, and work: for I am with you, saith Jehovah of hosts.". v3 Some of you remember this house in its first *glory. No! That Haggai and all of Israel might indeed have had such a notion is true enough; but this passage does not say that. After this appeal to lay to heart the past time during which the blessing had been withheld, Haggai called upon the people in Haggai 2:18 and Haggai 2:19 to fix their eyes upon the time which was commencing with that very day. Jump to: In the cosmic view, it will indeed be but a short time until God concludes the affairs of men. "The shaking of the nations ..." Before leaving Haggai 2:7, it must be pointed out that the "shaking of nations" is going on continually. He will bring them all with Him. "That day" mentioned in this final passage, as Galley pointed out "is the Day of the Lord when the heavens and the earth will be shaken,"[33] in fact removing the fulfillment of the prophecy to times long subsequent to Haggai. "Ask now the priests concerning the law..." "The law" mentioned here is that contained in the Pentateuch and which long had existed in Israel as the supreme religious authority. See below for a summary of the entire prophecy: Wonderful things had happened to Israel, the people at that time being Judah and Benjamin alone, Ephraim and the northern tribes having been permanently removed from history. when the Babylonians, led by Nebuchadnezzar, sacked Jerusalem, destroyed the temple, killed many of … Jesus spoke of "wars and rumors of wars," declaring that "the end is not yet," indicating that these shall continue throughout all time to the end. (Baldwin) 2. fill this house with glory--( Haggai 2:9 ). The first is the final advent of Christ in the final judgment. It should be noted here that military terminology dominates this passage: "strength of nations," "chariots," "horses," and "sword." Regarding this date, Dean wrote, "The ninth month is Chisleu, answering to parts of November and December. THE PROBLEM OF SIZE - Vss. when one came to an heap of twenty measures--that is to a heap which he had expected would be one of twenty measures, there were but ten. The "good tidings of great joy" were "to all people" ( Luke 2:10 ). The transitoriness of all that is earthly should lead men to seek "peace" in Messiah's everlasting kingdom ( Haggai 2:9 , Hebrews 12:27 Hebrews 12:28 ) [MOORE]. God will again be with you people, if you will only get to work doing your duty. THE TWENTY-FIRST DAY OF THE SEVENTH MONTH: God revealed another message to Haggai almost one month later, on the twenty-first day of the seventh month (Tishri, modern October 17) of the same year, 520 BC. A ring with a seal on it; the legal representative of the owner; generally of precious stones and gold, &c., and much valued. Despite the fact of the uncleanness in Numbers being a reference to uncleanness caused by a dead body; the principle would of necessity apply to all uncleanness. All is ascribed, not to the merits of Zerubbabel, but to God's gratuitous choice. "I smote you with blasting and mildew and with hail in all the work of your hands; yet ye turned not to me, saith Jehovah.". Well, that is a very small thing; and holiness is not that contagious! The allegation that the prophet of God was here requesting the priests to make a new law is preposterous. . . In the second case, regarding the transferability, or contagiousness of defilement, their answer fully conformed to Numbers 19:11,22, but in the first situation, regarding the same quality as applied to holiness, their answer conformed exactly to all situations where the Lord had not spoken; and they declined to make a law where God had not provided one. Say this to them. "[23] This uncleanness would not be easily removed; and therefore the people must not complain of hard times and inconveniences; when they do better, God will more abundantly bless them! Haggai 2:11-14. 4. be strong . Recount this chronicle of two generations, one with memories of a glorious past and one with some hopes for a faithful future. He still rides upon our unhappy planet. As the first temple was filled with the cloud of glory, the symbol of God ( 1 Kings 8:11 , 2 Chronicles 5:14 ), so this second temple was filled with the "glory" of God ( John 1:14 ) veiled in the flesh (as it were in the cloud) at Christ's first coming, when He entered it and performed miracles there ( Matthew 21:12-14 ); but that "glory" is to be revealed at His second coming, as this prophecy in its ulterior reference foretells ( Malachi 3:1 ). Since that time they invent various forced and false interpretations of such plain Messianic prophecies. peace--namely, at Jerusalem, the metropolis of the kingdom of God, whose seat was the temple: where Messiah "made peace through the blood of His cross" ( Colossians 1:20 ). Why is that? Well, how about the Med-fly in California this very day? "Through all that time ..." Through all the fourteen years after they had returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple, and during which time they had utterly neglected it. how do ye see it now?--God's estimate of things is very different from man's ( Zechariah 8:6 ; compare 1 Samuel 16:7 ). Though Zerubbabel's temple was taken down to the foundations when Herod rebuilt the temple, the latter was considered, in a religious point of view, as not a third temple, but virtually the second temple. Haggai 2:7. "[25], "And the word of Jehovah came the second time unto Haggai in the four and twentieth day of the month, saying, Speak to Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah, saying, I will shake the heavens and the earth.". "In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of Jehovah by Haggai the prophet saying.". If you want better times, then do better in fulfilling your religious obligations. In the light of this obvious meaning of the passage, we cannot join with those who apply these words exclusively to the overthrow of Babylon, or any of the other numerous upheavals of either ancient or modern history. We have plenty of fungicides and insecticides; and the point is that, no matter what men have, or fancy they have, they must also have the blessing of Almighty God in order to make it. "In that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel, my servant, the son of Shealtiel, saith Jehovah, and will make thee as a signet; for I have chosen thee, saith Jehovah of hosts.". In the first and the last of these, one finds two prophecies of the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ. Or, translate, "From this day on which the temple is being begun," namely, on the foundations long ago laid [GROTIUS]. Haggai 2:12. Using the laws of clean and unclean, God points out a principle that applies to Christians today. The prophecy of Revelation further reveals that from the moment of Satan's being cast out of heaven and down to earth until the consummation of all things is but a "short time" (Revelation 12:12). Sacrifices without obedience (in respect to God's command to build the temple) could not sanctify. In this passage, we have discussed Haggai 2:13 before Haggai 2:12, because the priests' answer regarding Haggai 2:13 reveals the reason for their answer concerning Haggai 2:12. For we saw his star when it rose 6 and have come to worship him.” 3 When King Herod 7 heard this he was alarmed, and all Jerusalem with him. Legal sanctity is not so readily communicated as legal impurity. "In this place ..." As Keil accurately pointed out, "This place is not the temple, but the city of Jerusalem,"[19] from which place the word of the Lord went forth from Mount Zion. Individually, therefore, there must be countless exceptions to the principle expounded by Haggai; but, as applied to nations, there are no historical exceptions to it. The shaking began introductory to the … Zerubbabel stands in both of them. That the priests consulted by Haggai in this passage had anything to do with what was incorporated into the Pentateuch is impossible to believe. The reason: the people had not really become "holy" through the token beginning they had made. Masoretic Text: And Haggai answered and said, So [is] this people, and so [is] this nation before my face, [is the] announcement of YHWH, and so [is] all the work of their hands, and what they bring near [to offer] there—it [is] unclean. The people, discouraged at the inferiority of this temple to Solomon's, are encouraged nevertheless to persevere, because God is with them, and this house by its connection with Messiah's kingdom shall have a glory far above that of gold and silver. Then said Haggai, If one that is unclean by reason of a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean? 1-3. "Yet once more ..." raises the question of what was the first occasion of God's shaking the earth and the heavens, etc.? Haggai 2:1 "In the seventh [month], in the one and twentieth [day] of the month, came the word of the LORD by the prophet Haggai, saying," “Seventh month … one and twentieth day”: This day in the month of Tishri (corresponds to October 17, 520 B.C. When the beast, and the dragon, and the false prophet shall gather all "the kings of the earth unto the war of the great God almighty" (Revelation 16:15. So also the vine, &c., which heretofore have borne little or nothing, shall be blessed with productiveness. Salem Media Group. First peace between God and man, then between man and God, then between man and man ( Isaiah 2:4 , Hosea 2:18 , Zechariah 9:10 ). It is competent in exegetical detail of a reformed nature, explaining much in the books, but disappointing … At first, a remnant of the people obeyed; and they even erected an altar to God on the ancient site in Jerusalem; but then their zeal faded, and for half a lifetime the old Temple continued to lie in ruins. When God was with his people, they were indeed glorified, and all of the alleged inferiority of the new temple would be nullified and compensated for by the presence of the Lord himself who was moving toward the accomplishment of his eternal purpose through the instrumentality of the "once chosen" people in bringing forth the Messiah into the world. 6. Ask . God had promised the Messiah "through" them. Also, such mercies to the old Israel were typical of similar mercies to Christ's church, the New Israel of God. There is scarcely a prophecy of Messiah in the Old Testament which does not, to some extent at least, refer to His second coming [SIR ISAAC NEWTON]. Yet from this day on I will bless you.'" "In that day" in the prophecies almost invariably means "in the days of the New Covenant," "in the last days," "in the times of the kingdom of Christ," or "at a time far removed from the present. (2) Israel, in the sense of the whole nation, "was utterly unclean (as in Haggai 2:13) on account of its neglect of the house of the Lord, like a man who has become unclean through touching a corpse. Therefore, we apply Haggai 2:7 to God's true temple, the Church of Jesus Christ. 17. This prophecy was very shortly before that of Zechariah. "[27] And, of course, both the Matthew and Lucan genealogies show that this was exactly fulfilled. Any execution of the deserved penalty upon the old Israel would have checkmated God's purpose in the far more important matter of delivering the Messiah to mankind. Judah also had fallen completely away from God except for a precious remnant; and Judah suffered the same fate as Ephraim, being carried into slavery; but there was a glorious distinction. Commentary on Haggai 2:10-19 (Read Haggai 2:10-19) Many spoiled this good work, by going about it with unholy hearts and hands, and were likely to gain no advantage by it. ? Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament "For thus saith Jehovah of hosts, Once more, in a short time it comes to pass, I shake heaven and earth, and the sea, and the dry. We find it in 1:1-12.Let’s read that. The kingdoms of the world are but the scaffolding for God's spiritual temple, to be thrown down when their purpose is accomplished. ii. His prophets had foretold the birth of Christ in Bethlehem. 12. Although the disastrous conditions had continued right up until the very day the foundation of the temple was laid, and despite there hardly being enough seed in the granaries to sow the fields, Haggai will now pronounce an astounding blessing upon the people. The shaking of nations implies judgments of wrath on the foes of God's people, to precede the reign of the Prince of peace ( Isaiah 13:13 ). They are yearning for solutions, wisdom, power, understanding, vision, and love, and He is all those things. Keil also agreed fully with this: "In a little while ..." These words are a problem for some. violent political convulsions accompanied with physical prodigies ( Matthew 24:7 Matthew 24:29 ). . 4 Dr. Constable's Notes on Haggai 2020 Edition 561-60 Release of exiled king Jehoiachin Genealogies show that this was exactly fulfilled who can be against us? of his sacred!. The analogy we have Jesus Christ on how to reset your password that time arrive and... 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